Alcoholic drinks are drinks that contain alcohol as the main intoxicating ingredient, which are distinguished in
✓ Non-distilled (wine, beer)
✓ Distillates (ouzo, tsipouro, cognac, rum, vodka, etc.)
✓ Soft drinks (liqueur, vermouth)
Wine is the product of fermentation (finished or not) of fresh grapes or must (must or opus) from fresh grapes. Any other similar product, which does not comply with the above conditions, is characterized as artificial wine, such as raisin, cider, etc. Wine is an alcoholic drink and is generally produced from grapes, grapevines or other sugary fruits.
The quality of the wine depends on the type of vine from which it comes, their maturation, their type and the harvest season. Depending on their color, wines are divided into white, black and red, while by fermentation they are distinguished into dry sweet and sparkling. There are also special types of wine: raisin, mastellia, deuteria, retsina and sparkling or champagnes.
From a chemical point of view, wine is a complex mixture of various bodies that either come from the grape or are produced by fermentation or aging. The most important ingredients are water, alcohol and various acids (tartaric, citric, malic, carbonic, etc.). Also: glycerin, various ethers, esters, aldehydes, acetols, albuminous substances, coloring substances and mineral salts. Proportions vary among different types of wine, as well as among regions of origin and vintages.
In the laboratory Modern Analytics the analyzes carried out for the various types of wine are as follows:
Beer or beer is an alcoholic beverage produced by fermentation of roasted malt extract and hops and contains a rich dry residue and carbon dioxide. There are several types of beer that vary considerably in alcohol content and dry residue.
Raw materials for beer production
✔ Malt is made from barley that must be of a suitable variety because its characteristics affect the quality of the final product. Light-colored malts are made from barley with a nitrogen content of 9-12%, while barley with a nitrogen content of 11-13% is used to make dark-colored malt.
✔ The addition of hops contributes to the clarification of the malt wort and gives the beer its pleasant bitter taste, in addition it helps to preserve the beer and enhances the stability of the foam.
✔ Starch additives are mainly used for the preparation of beer of light color and increased stability.
✔ The water. When brewing beer, the quality of the water used is of great importance, both in terms of total hardness and the type of salts contained. Thus, water with a high iron content causes cloudiness, while water containing even small amounts of magnesium sulfate gives the beer an unpleasant bitter taste.
Beer production stages
✔ The preparation of malt.
✔ The preparation of wort.
✔ The fermentation of the wort and the maturation of the beer
In the Modern Analytics analyzes are carried out during all stages of beer production and the final product and are as follows: